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Skin anatomy & physiology

The skin is the body's largest organ, and it serves as a protective barrier. Its health and surface appearance are determined by environmental factors as well as the function of the components that comprise the layers below.

Choose one skin type or skin condition to explore the physiological attributes.

normal Skin

Sebum
This oil-like substance is produced by the sebaceous glands. Sebum helps waterproof the skin. Sebum forms a film on skin that keeps water in and irritants out.
Dermal
epidermal
junction
Collagen
Elastin
Sebaceous
glands
Located at the root of the hair follicles, these glands produce oil. This oil, or sebum, lubricates and waterproofs the skin and hair. Sebaceous glands are present everywhere except the palms and soles of the feet.
Hypodermis
Dermis
The middle layer of the skin housing nerves, glands, essential proteins, enzymes, and blood cells, making it the skin’s “operation” center. Contains collagen and elastin which provide support and structure to skin.
Epidermis
Outer layer of skin that acts as a barrier between the body and the environment. Stratum corneum, uppermost layer, is made up of corneocytes (flat, dead skin cells) forming skin’s barrier. Basal layer, bottom layer, is where pigment is produced.
Blood
vessels
normal skin

aging Skin

Sebum
Dermal
epidermal
junction
The DEJ flattens with age, making the skin more prone to sagging.
Collagen
As collagen degrades and natural production shows, the skin’s underlying support structure weakens and wrinkling occurs.
Elastin
As elastin breaks down over time, skin loses its firmness and ability to "bounce back".
Sebaceous
glands
Oil production slows with age, leading to increased dryness.
Hypodermis
Dermis
Skin’s metabolism slows down, affecting the production of integral cell types.
Epidermis
Surface cells shed more slowly, causing dullness.
Blood
vessels
normal skin

Skin Ceuticals

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